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Introduction to Ubuntu 20.04: A Comprehensive Guide

We introduce you to the popular open-source Linux distribution and highlight who it’s the right choice for.

Ubuntu is a popular open-source Linux distribution developed by Canonical. Canonical provides support and security updates for every version of Ubuntu and oversees ongoing development. Ubuntu comes in various editions, including Core, Server, and Desktop, allowing it to run on various types of devices, whether it’s personal computers, servers, supercomputers, or in the cloud.

Ubuntu’s popularity and appeal to developers looking for a free, open-source, secure, and user-friendly solution are well-founded. The software’s popularity, combined with the collaborative nature of open source, means that Ubuntu is well-supported within the Canonical community. The operating system is user-friendly and customizable, with enhanced security features.

Installation & Setup

Installing Ubuntu is relatively straightforward, and setting up your server can be completed in a few steps. First, you need to log in as root on your server and create a new user. You’ll need the server’s public IP address and its password or the private key for the root user account (if you’ve set up SSH key authentication). After logging in as root, you can add the new user account and assign administrative permissions. You should also configure SSH access for your new user if necessary. Once you’ve created a regular user for daily use, enable external access for that user and ensure you can SSH directly into the account.

Next, set up a firewall. Ubuntu 20.04 servers come pre-installed with the Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) to ensure only specific services’ connections are allowed. While you can use a different firewall, it’s recommended to use only one firewall at a time to avoid rule conflicts, which can be challenging to resolve.

The Ubuntu Command Line

To effectively use Ubuntu, you should become familiar with the Ubuntu command line. The command line is the typical way to interact with a Linux server. The Linux system employs a shell as the command-line interface to interpret user commands and script files, instructing the server’s operating system on what to do. After logging in to your server via SSH, you’ll be connected to a remote shell or command prompt through which you can send commands to the server.

Ubuntu 20.04 comes with many standard Linux tools installed by default, serving various purposes from navigating the file system to installing software packages, configuring the system, and applications.

Installing Software on Ubuntu 20.04

Another crucial aspect is installing software on Ubuntu 20.04. Here are some common software applications that can be useful:

  • Virtual Network Computing (VNC): Allows using a keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server.
  • Docker and Docker Compose: Enable container usage for application isolation in development, testing, and deployment.
  • Nextcloud: Provides a central storage solution for personal files and data.
  • TensorFlow: An open-source software library for machine learning and neural networks.
  • Postfix: A popular Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) for managing email on a Linux system.
  • LEMP and LAMP stacks: These software stacks enable dynamic web page and web application deployment.
  • Python: A flexible and versatile programming language for various use cases.
  • Elastic Stack: A collection of open-source software for centralized logging.

When Is Ubuntu the Right Choice?

In conclusion, Ubuntu is an excellent choice when seeking an operating system well-supported by cloud providers, highly versatile, and backed by a large community. With Ubuntu, you’re on the right path for successful server management and application development. Introduction to Ubuntu 20.04: A Comprehensive Guide

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